There are various laws governing environmental and pollution control matters, including the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974; the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981; the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986; the Biomedical Waste Management & Handling) Rules, 1998; the Manufacture, Storage, and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989; and the Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2008. Contravention of the above Acts attracts a fine and imprisonment. The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) is the nodal agency of the Central Government for planning, promoting, coordinating, and overseeing the implementation of India's environmental and forestry policies and programs43. The process of applying for environment and forest clearances can be made online through the MoEFCC's portals www.environmentclearance.nic.in and www. forestsclearance.nic.in.
The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991, applies to all owners associated with the production or handling of any hazardous chemicals. It provides for damages to victims of an accident that occurs as a result of handling any hazardous substance44.
The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is a statutory organization under the MoEFCC that advises the Central Government on any matter concerning the prevention and control of water and air pollution and coordinates the activities of the State Pollution Control Boards (SPCB) among other things45. Each SPCB provides detailed guidelines for necessary approvals and conditions required for setting up operations in the state.