Introducing India

Political System2

India is a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic with a parliamentary system of government. It is governed by the Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950. It has a federal government with 28 states and eight union territories and is the largest democracy in the world. The Central/ Union Government is further divided at the state and local levels. The government is divided into three structural segments: the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary.

Executive: The executive branch comprises the President as the head of state, the Vice President, and the Council of Ministers. The Council, headed by the Prime Minister, aids and advises the President. Thus, the real executive power is vested in the Council of Ministers and the Prime Minister (head of the government). Mr. Ram Nath Kovind is the current President of India, and Mr. Narendra Modi is the Prime Minister .

Legislature: The Parliament is the supreme legislative body of India. It consists of the President and the two Houses— Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and Lok Sabha (House of the People). Elections to the Lok Sabha are held every five years, after which the Prime Minister is appointed by the President.

Judiciary: The Supreme Court is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by the High Courts and subordinate courts. The judiciary is independent of the executive and legislative branches of the government.

The current ruling coalition is the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), which is an alliance of over 30 parties led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). The former ruling alliance, the United Progressive Alliance was led by the Indian National Congress. Other major political parties in India include the Nationalist Congress Party, Bahujan Samaj Party, Aam Aadmi Party, Communist Party of India, and the Communist Party of India (Marxist).

  • 2.Constitution of India, National Portal of India, https://www.india.gov.in/my-government/constitution-india, accessed 23 September 2020
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